Tuesday, 4 October 2016

Kundalini Wiki Org

Blogger Ref http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Multi-Dimensional_Science

KundaliniWiki.org is a free library of information on Kundalini and Kundalini research.
For more on related projects, please visit www.emergingsciences.org.

An Introduction to Kundalini

The best introductory materials available on the internet are on the Institute for Consciousness Research's (ICR) Learning Center. Most places online that have information on Kundalini just repeat information found elsewhere, such as the ancient writings of India. ICR takes a modern view of Kundalini as a universal biological mechanism critically important for our survival in the nuclear age.
ICR Learning Center Links:

The Kundalini Experimental Project

The Kundalini Experimental Project, first proposed by the Institute for Consciousness Research, is a global research effort to understand the underlying factors responsible for a Kundalini awakening and to identify safe methods for its arousal. The ultimate goal of the project is the empirical validation of the Kundalini mechanism in the human body.

Kundalini's Impact on Society

Resources and information on Kundalini's impact to society. Based on the ESF's Kundalini Worldmap

Institute for Consciousness Research - Kundalini & Consciousness Researh

Kundalini Profile Survey Analysis


The following may be of some interest. However, with the development of Multi-Dimensional Science surveys, or rather questionnaires per se would become progressively far more detailed. Moreover, the overall data from "psychic" experiencers could be turned into images using Virtual Reality tools, and converted into "scientific" diagrams with the possibility of them being changed into mathemtatical models. In the light of this MDS is far more advanced than the following, and represents a truly holistic approach. See the Bloggers Ref  http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Multi-Dimensional_Science
From KundaliniWiki.org
The Kundalini Profile Survey is part of the Emerging Sciences Foundation's Kundalini Experimental Project hosted on the Brilliano collaboration tool. The survey contains 268 5-point likert scale questions, open text fields, and questions about the impact of a person's spiritual experiences. The analysis documented on this page is being conducted by the Emerging Sciences Foundation's Kundalini Data Insights team. The complete source code for all analysis presented here can be found on the Kundalini Discover project in GitHub.
To participate in the Kundalini Experimental Project and contribute important research data, please visit the Kundalini Experimental Project page on the ESF website.

Analysis Goals

The Kundalini Profile Survey was created to document the types of spiritual experiences people are having, and associated physical and psychological experiences.
Analysis on the Kundalini Profile Survey has a few basic goals:
  • Discover groupings of Kundalini experiences that occur together.
  • Explore the relationship between different experience types and other physical and psychological experiences.
  • Create an empirical, data-driven way of classifying a person's spiritual experiences.
  • Lay the groundwork for future experimentation on Kundalini by providing important measures that can be used to track progress. Future research will focus on potential ways to enhance or accelerate the Kundalini process. Kundalini is seen as the biological basis of all spiritual experiences.

Summary Information

To date, 338 people from all walks of life and from across the globe have participated in the Kundalini Profile Survey.

Age and Sex

There has been broadly an equal participation from men and women, although there were slightly more women who took part. People of all ages have taken part in the survey with the majority of respondants being around the age of 30.

Sex of Survey Participants
Age of Survey Participants

Core Experience Summary

The survey contains a list of 66 "core experience" questions describing classical Kundalini awakening indicators. The list was derived from previous surveys and existing literature, and respondents reported the strength of their experiences along a 5-point likert scale.
The survey contains three categories of experiences:
  1. Mystical indicators are those that typically transcend the normal bounds of human experience.
  2. Spiritual indicators are those that, although they may have sublime characteristics, might not be as radical as mystical experiences.
  3. Psychophysiological indicators are those that affect the body and mind through some not yet understood connecting medium.
In the data, these are represented as the mystical, spiritual, and psyphys (psychophysiolocical) question categories. In general, the data shows a very common occurrence of powerful, transformative experiences among respondents. Prevalent experiences in each category include:
  • Mystical experiencies associated with the perception of unity and consciousness.
  • Spiritual indicators associated with wisdom and intuition.
  • Psychophysiolocal experiences associated with energy vibrating or moving in the body.

Mystical likert questions summary. Available in PDF: File:Mystical-likert.pdf
Spiritual likert questions summary. Available in PDF: File:Spiritual-likert.pdf
Psychophysiological likert questions summary. Available in PDF: File:Psychophysiological-likert.pdf

Primary Experience Categories Factor Analysis

Factor analysis was conducted on the 66 primary experience questions. Factor analysis is a technique of identifying groups of correlated variables that correspond to latent categories of experiences. Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation was used, which is a technique used in a psychological research setting. The mystical, spiritual, and psychophysiological question categories were analyzed. The number of factors to be determined per category was determined using an empirical technique known as parallel analysis. This was used to maximize reproducibility of our results and to avoid researcher bias. One key observation was the prominence of a single factor, labeled "Higher Consciousness," which accounted for a very large portion of explained variance in the data. To illustrate this point, all 66 questions were used in the following scree plot, in which Higher Consciousness is shown as the first factor:
Scree plot showing an extremely eigenvalue for high Higher Consciousness
According to the Kundalini Hypothesis, Higher Consciousness is the goal of the Kundalini biological mechanism, and all other manifestations of Kundalini are secondary effects. In our analysis, Higher Consciousness was characterized by:
  1. The direct perception of consciousness.
  2. Unity and the personal identification with all of creation
Factor analysis yielded the resulting factors in each major experience category. The questions listed below have a factor loading > ~0.6. This threshold was selected for interpretability of the data:

Mystical Question Factors

Higher Consciousness Ecstacy Grace Experiences
Experience of Higher consciousness/cosmic consciousness Intense feeling of peace Tasting sacred nectar dripping from the roof of mouth or back of throat (amrita or soma)
Expansion of consciousness Overwhelming sense of love Experiences or visions of deities, gurus, icons, saints or mystics or other religious prophets, religious icons or universal archetypes
Revelation: Knowledge that comes from a divine source where the individual becomes aware of the source of that knowledge Overwhelming sense of bliss, joy and or contentment Receiving instructions from the divine
New knowledge / awareness of the unbounded intelligence behind universe Overwhelming sense of wonder and awe Feeling sacred touch (wind, presence, touch)
Personal identification with all of creation Visions of glowing geometric shapes
Expanded comprehension of reality
Experience of deep unity and expansive consciousness
Union with Life Energy
All sense of separateness disappears
An experience of union with the Divine-God or universal consciousness

Spiritual Question Factors

Rebirth Intuition Synchronicity Out of Body Aural
New understanding of spiritual truths/Insight into the inner meaning of spiritual teachings Feeling of connection with a spiritual guide or lineage Spontaneously going into a deep meditative experience Out of body experiences Sacred auditions (of teachings, mantras, music)
Spiritual rebirth - spontaneous religious conversion or dramatic spiritual awakening, including a major reorientation of spiritual beliefs. Receiving inner instruction Increased experience of unsual synchronistic events Astral/time travel experiences Glossalalia (spontaneously reciting phonemes, mantras, prayers, or poems, singing hymns, or speaking foreign languages unknown to the individual)
An unshakable conviction about the reality of the experience Inspired creativity Encounters with nonmaterial entities(the deceased, lower astral beings, aliens, spirit guides)
Transient, atypical, pivotal, or opening experiences

Psychophysiological Question Factors

Energy Sensations Light
Feelings of energy flowing or vibrating within Visions of light
Sensations of energy rushing up the spine Floating in the light
Sensations of energy along the seven major chakras (chakras are spinning vortices of energy) that run from the base of the spine to the crown of the head Sensations of white light or luminosity
Inner sensations of heat or cold
Transient or unusual symptoms or some features atypical for a standard diagnosis

Variable Cluster Analysis

  • Perform ICLUST analysis

Composite Variables

  • Create composite variables

Cluster analysis

  • Hierarchical clustering and k-means for exploratory data analysis.
  • Create classifications (segments).
  • Create profiles.

Open text cross-validation

  • Ensure consistency by analyzing open text responses.


Wednesday, 28 September 2016

Superstition and Witches in Hardy's World

Thomashardy restored.jpg

Jennifer Williams Class of 1997
Jennifer Sabatini Class of 1997
(Source) Gettysburg College Edu

Blogger Ref  http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Multi-Dimensional_Science

Wikpedia pic source

As a child, Thomas Hardy heard various stories of supernatural occurrences from the family servants, rustics from the village, and his own mother who believed she once saw a ghost. Thus, Hardy learned to believe in the supernatural and to accept the superstitious ways of the rustic people. During an interview with William Archer, Hardy expressed, "when I was a younger man, I would cheerfully have given ten years of my life to see a ghost, - an authentic, indubitable spectre". Because of the superstitious influence of his upbringing and his own desire to believe, elements of weirdness, superstition, and magic play an interesting role in Hardy's works. Specifically, Hardy incorporated aspects of superstition and witchcraft into his writings. Such elements provide the reader with an understanding of how Hardy perceived his world.

Many small aspects of superstition exist within the writings of Hardy. In Return of the Native, the reader is introduced to Diggory Venn, the Reddleman. A reddleman unearths red clay which is used as a dye for sheep's wool. Because the reddleman works so much with this substance, his skin takes on a reddish hue and thus, red associating him with the devil, he becomes the "boogeyman " of the rustic people. Other examples of superstition include the evil eye, the magic of a sixpence, and dairy witchcraft. In his 1901 interview with Archer, Hardy stated that "The belief in the evil eye subsists in full force." Johnny Nunsuch of The Return of the Native felt safe as he carried his sixpence because the coin was supposed to bring good luck and protect against witchcraft. Johnny becomes frightened when he happens upon Diggory Venn, the Reddleman, because the child realizes that he has lost his guardian sixpence. The country people held many superstitions regarding the production of milk and cheese. The "magic" that these superstitions are based on is known as dairy witchcraft. For example, in Tess of the d'Urbervilles after Tess arrives at Talbothays, the cows cease to produce milk. The milkers blame this unexplainable phenomena on the newcomer, believing that the milk went directly to the horns of the cows. They thus resort to song as a device to start the cows milking again.
Hardy uses slight witch imagery when describing his strong female characters because, according to Gayla Steel, he is hiding his examination of their independence and sexuality within these images. Unlike the stereotypical, Victorian "Angel in the House", Bathsheba, Eustacia, and Rhoda are strong, tall, and dark. For example, in The Return of the Native Hardy calls Eustacia "Queen of the Night" and describes her as having a "dark beauty." Because these women are strong, passionate, and set apart from society, their neighbors denounce them as witches. An example of this fear of the different occurs in The Return of the Native when Susan Nunsuch accuses Eustacia as being in league with the "dark one." As a retaliation against the supposed witch, Eustacia, Susan pricks her in church and creates a wax effigy (a voo-doo doll) in her likeness. Susan pricks Eustacia to see if she bleeds; it was said that if a woman did not bleed when pricked, she was a witch.

Although the self-sufficient women of Hardy's world are branded as witches, the men who possess special knowledge and skills are looked upon favorably. Some of these "conjurors" have a bond with nature that gives them an innate sense of time and weather. Specifically, Reverend Swancourt in A Pair of Blue Eyes claims that the farmers of Endelstow can tell time to the fraction of an hour by looking at shadows, winds, clouds, the movements of sheep and oxen, the singing of birds, the crowing of cocks (ch. 14). Similarly, Gabriel Oak of Far From the Madding Crowd maintains a closeness to the land and has the ability to observe all that surrounds him. These skills give Oak a great understanding of natural forces which, in chapter thirty-seven, he uses to predict an oncoming storm. Oak notices a garden-slug that has crept inside, "It was Nature's second way of hinting to him that he was to prepare for foul weather" (ch. 37). Diggory Venn of The Return of the Native is another man close to nature whose "isolated and weird character" (book 6, ch. 3) has such a great tie with the heath that he seems to be an extension of it. In addition to Oak and Venn, Hardy creates two characters who are literally conjurors practicing "white magic." Conjuror Trendle appears in the short story "The Withered Arm" and the other conjuror, Fall, appears in The Mayor of Casterbridge. Both men are looked upon by their communities as wise, talented, and helpful. Although they practice "magic", Trendle and Fall are never humiliated by a test of pricking, nor are they ever associated with the devil. Unlike the strong women characters, Oak, Venn, Conjuror Trendle and Conjuror Fall are praised and rewarded by Hardy for their talents.
Archer, William. "Real Conversations: Conversation 1. - With Mr. Thomas Hardy." The Critic, 38 (April, 1901), 309-318.
Steel, Gayla R. Sexual Tyranny in Wessex. New York: Peter Long Publishing Inc., 1993. 

Invisibility: The Most Fascinating Psychic Ability You Will Never See

The following maybe of interest, but it should be taken with a big pinch of salt. However, there is a large number of like articles on the internet. RS/Blogger Ref http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Multi-Dimensional_Science


Feb 15, 2011 • By   Source Articlesbase.com

It is not every day you get the opportunity to watch a person literally fade out of sight in front of you, but the day I actually saw it happen changed the way I look at the world forever.

The psychic development of such a "exciting" ability as invisibility may seem far-fetched, but there are actually an amazing number of well documented examples of spontaneous human invisibility on record. There are also a great many people who have learned how to produce this effect at will.

To understand how psychic invisibility can work, we first need to appreciate exactly how we see.

There are two parts to seeing. The first is that light needs to reflect off an object and then arrive at our eyes. Once this happens, the reflected light is transformed into electrical impulses which are sent via the optic nerve to the brain. This is an important step in the mechanics, but the real art of seeing is what happens next.

The second step needed to actually see something is for our brains to actively decipher those electrical impulses and reconstruct them into a mental image.

Since there are two discrete parts needed in order to see something, it makes sense that there are two basic ways to become invisible. Each method interferes with one of these parts of how we recognize something.

The first method is a kind of telekinesis. It is a way to use your psychic abilities to curve light so that what reflects off you never reaches the eye of the beholder. With no reflected light, the eye has no signals to send to the brain so there is nothing to see.

The second method is a way of deceiving the brain of the viewer so it doesn't bother to decode the visual information that the eye sent.

There are actually two ways to bring this about. The first is a kind of telepathic suggestion that works on the mind very much like hypnosis. It essentially tells the brain of the viewer "you did not see anything" and so the brain simply ignores the stuff "it didn't see".

The other method is a way of creating an external cloud of psychic energy that is right on the edge of what the human eye can perceive. Its appearance is so subtle and so strange that the brain assumes that it must have gotten bad information from the eye and so it removes the information out of its mental image, just as it automatically does for your "blind spot.

The method of summoning the cloud of psychic energy is like certain methods of making a "psi-ball" but the volume of energy is much bigger, and the energy must be "tuned" into the "quasi-viewable" frequencies that confuse the eye, which is an art in itself!

With a lot of practice, the "Cloud Method" actually becomes the foundation of many other fascinating psychic skills, including the ability to create spontaneous psychic light, and even psychic illusions!

There are actually a number of other methods for achieving psychic invisibility, but in one way or another each one boils down to either interfering with how the eye makes and sends information to the brain, or by tricking the brain into not processing the visual data it got from the eye.

If you are interested in the idea of creating a psychic effect that is objectively verifiable by other people, invisibility is actually a great skill to begin with. It takes a lot of practice, but it is intensely rewarding and is within the grasp of anyone who is willing to put in the time and effort.

Charles Tart

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Charles Tart
Charles Tart.jpg
Charles Tart, psychologist
Born(1937-04-29) April 29, 1937 (age 79)
Occupationpsychologist and author
Known forAltered states of consciousness
Charles T. Tart (born 1937) is an American psychologist and parapsychologist known for his psychological work on the nature of consciousness (particularly altered states of consciousness), as one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology, and for his research in parapsychology.[1]


Charles Tart was born on April 29, 1937 in Morrisville, Pennsylvania and grew up in Trenton, New Jersey. He was active in amateur radio and worked as a radio engineer (with a First Class Radiotelephone License from the Federal Communications Commission) while a teenager. As an undergraduate, Tart first studied electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before transferring to Duke University to study psychology, on the advice of Dr Rhine of Duke. He received his doctoral degree in psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1963, and then received postdoctoral training in hypnosis research with Professor Ernest R. Hilgard at Stanford University.[1]
His first books, Altered States of Consciousness (editor, 1969) and Transpersonal Psychologies (1975), became widely used texts that were instrumental in allowing these areas to become part of modern psychology.[1] He is currently (2005) a Core Faculty Member at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology (Palo Alto, California) and a Senior Research Fellow of the Institute of Noetic Sciences (Sausalito, California), as well as Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of California, Davis, where he served for 28 years, and emeritus member of the Monroe Institute board of advisors. Tart was the holder of the Bigelow Chair of Consciousness Studies at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas and has served as a Visiting Professor in East-West Psychology at the California Institute of Integral Studies, as an Instructor in Psychiatry at the School of Medicine of the University of Virginia, and a consultant on government funded parapsychological research at the Stanford Research Institute (now known as SRI International).[1]
He was also integral in the theorizing and construction of the automatic ESP testing device the ESPATEACHER machine that was built at the University of Virginia. He supports Joseph McMoneagle's claim of having remote viewed into the past, present, and future and has predicted future events.[2]
As well as a laboratory researcher, Tart has been a student of the Japanese martial art of Aikido (in which he holds a black belt), of meditation, of Gurdjieff's work, of Buddhism, and of other psychological and spiritual growth disciplines. Tart believes that the evidence of the paranormal is bringing science and spirit together. His primary goal is to build bridges between the scientific and spiritual communities, and to help bring about a refinement and integration of Western and Eastern approaches for knowing the world and for personal and social growth.
In his 1986 book Waking Up, he introduced the phrase "consensus trance" to the lexicon. Tart likened normal waking consciousness to hypnotic trance. He discussed how each of us is from birth inducted to the trance of the society around us. Tart noted both similarities and differences between hypnotic trance induction and consensus trance induction. He emphasized the enormous and pervasive power of parents, teachers, religious leaders, political figures, and others to compel induction. Referring to the work of Gurdjieff and others he outlines a path to awakening based upon self-observation.

OBE experiment[edit]

In 1968, Tart conducted an OBE experiment with a subject known as Miss Z for four nights in his sleep laboratory.[3] The subject was attached to an EEG machine and a five-digit code was placed on a shelf above her bed. She did not claim to see the number on the first three nights but on fourth gave the number correctly.[4][5]
During the experiment Tart monitored the equipment in the next room, behind an observation window, however, he admitted he had occasionally dozed during the night.[6] The psychologists Leonard Zusne and Warren Jones have written that the possibility of the subject having obtained the number through ordinary sensory means was not ruled out during the experiment. For example when light fell on the code it was reflected from the surface of a clock located on the wall above the shelf. The subject was not constantly observed and it was also suggested she may have read the number when she was being attached to the EEG machine.[4] According to the magician Milbourne Christopher "If she had held a mirror with a handle in her right hand, by tilting the mirror and looking up she could have seen a reflection of the paper on the shelf... The woman had not been searched prior to the experiment, nor had an observer been in the sleep chamber with her — precautions that should have been taken."[6]
The psychologist James Alcock criticized the experiment for inadequate controls and questioned why the subject was not visually monitored by a video camera.[7] Martin Gardner has written the experiment was not evidence for an OBE and suggested that whilst Tart was "snoring behind the window, Miss Z simply stood up in bed, without detaching the electrodes, and peeked."[8] Susan Blackmore wrote "If Miss Z had tried to climb up, the brain-wave record would have showed a pattern of interference. And that was exactly what it did show."[9]
The experiment was not repeated at the laboratory, Tart wrote this was because Miss Z moved from the area where the laboratory was located.[10]


Tart has drawn criticism from the scientific community for his comments on a failed psychokinesis (PK) experiment. The targets from the random number generator that were used in the experiment were not random. Tart responded by claiming the nonrandomness was due to a PK effect. Terence Hines has written that a procedural flaw in the experiment itself was used by Tart as evidence for psi and that this is an example of the use of a nonfalsifiable hypothesis in parapsychology.[11]
In 1980, Tart claimed that a rejudging of the transcripts from one of Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff’s remote viewing experiments revealed an above-chance result.[12] Targ and Puthoff refused to provide copies of the transcripts and it was not until July 1985 that they were made available for study when it was discovered they still contained sensory cues.[13] The psychologist David Marks and Christopher Scott (1986) wrote "considering the importance for the remote viewing hypothesis of adequate cue removal, Tart’s failure to perform this basic task seems beyond comprehension. As previously concluded, remote viewing has not been demonstrated in the experiments conducted by Puthoff and Targ, only the repeated failure of the investigators to remove sensory cues."[14] Tart has also been criticized by the skeptic Robert Todd Carroll for ignoring Occam's razor (advocating the paranormal instead of naturalistic explanations) and for ignoring the known laws of physics.[15]
Tart's book about marijuana On Being Stoned has received mixed reviews.[16][17] Harris Chaiklin wrote the book rejected medical evidence and laboratory experiments in favor for the opinions of marijuana users and probability statistics were inappropriately used.[17] In his book Learning to Use Extrasensory Perception, Tart endorsed experimental methods from learning theory and the results from card guessing experiments in support for ESP. Richard Land wrote that Tart's data was unconvincing but concluded "the book will be enjoyed by believers in ESP, and sceptics will regard it as a curiosity".[18]
In 1981, Tart received the James Randi Educational Foundation Media Pigasus Award "for discovering that the further in the future events are, the more difficult it is to predict them."[19]


  • Altered States of Consciousness (1969), editor. ISBN 0-471-84560-4
  • Transpersonal Psychologies (1975)
  • On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication (1971)
  • States of Consciousness (1975)
  • Symposium on Consciousness (1975) With P. Lee, R. Ornstein, D. Galin & A. Deikman
  • Learning to Use Extrasensory Perception (1976)
  • Psi: Scientific Studies of the Psychic Realm (1977)
  • Mind at Large: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception (1979, with Harold E. Puthoff & Russel Targ)
  • Waking Up: Overcoming the Obstacles to Human Potential (1986)
  • Open Mind, Discriminating Mind: Reflections on Human Possibilities (1989)
  • Living the Mindful Life (1994)
  • Body Mind Spirit: Exploring the Parapsychology of Spirituality (1997)
  • Mind Science: Meditation Training for Practical People (2001)
  • States of Consciousness (2001). ISBN 0-595-15196-5
  • The End of Materialism: How Evidence of the Paranormal is Bringing Science and Spirit Together (2009) ISBN 978-1572246454


  • Distinguished Contributions to Scientific Hypnosis, The Society of Psychological Hypnosis (Division 30 of the American Psychological Association), 2001.[20]
  • Abraham Maslow Award (given to an individual for an outstanding and lasting contribution to the exploration of the farther reaches of human spirit), The Society for Humanistic Psychology (Division 32 of APA), 2004.[21]
  • Charles Honorton Integrative Contributions Award, Parapsychological Association, 2008.[22]
  • Pigasus Award, Category 1 (To the scientist who said or did the silliest thing relating to parapsychology in the preceding twelve months), presented by James Randi, 1981.


  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d "Brief Biographical Data". paradigm-sys.com. April 10, 1998. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  2. Jump up ^ Joseph McMoneagle. (1998). The Ultimate Time Machine: A Remote Viewer's Perception of Time and Predictions for the New Millennium. Foreword by Charles Tart. Hampton Roads Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-57174-102-8
  3. Jump up ^ Charles Tart. (1968). A Psychophysiological Study of Out-of-the-Body Experiences in a Selected Subject. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 62: 3-27.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 126. ISBN 0-8058-0508-7
  5. Jump up ^ Robert Todd Carroll. (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary. Wiley. p. 110. ISBN 0-471-27242-6
  6. ^ Jump up to: a b Milbourne Christopher. (1979). Search For The Soul: An Insider's Report On The Continuing Quest By Psychics and Scientists For Evidence Of Life After Death. Crowell. pp. 90-91. ISBN 978-0690017601 "Dr. Tart himself noted in his article, which was revised for Edgar D. Mitchell's Psychic Exploration (1974): that the woman "might have concealed a mirror and telescoping rod in her pajamas" and peeked at the shelf "when she thought I might not be looking through the observation window." The woman had not been searched prior to the experiment, nor had an observer been in the sleep chamber with her — precautions that should have been taken. Dr. Tart admitted in his article, but not in the book, that "occasionally I dozed during the night beside the equipment." Could the subject have known when the parapsychologist was napping? Yes — the room in which he sat was lit, and she could see, as he himself did, through the partially open slats of the venetian blind on the window between the two rooms. It should be noted that Dr. Tart wrote the target digits about two inches high "with a black marking pen." The large size would make it easier for the subject to see them — if trickery was used. Another possibility for cheating — mentioned in Dr. Tart's article but excluded from the book — was that the number might have been reflected by the glass face of the wall clock above the shelf."
  7. Jump up ^ James Alcock. (1981). Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective. Pergamon Press. pp. 130-131. ISBN 978-0080257730
  8. Jump up ^ Martin Gardner. (1989). How Not To Test A Psychic: 10 Years of Remarkable Experiments with Renowned Clairvoyant Pavel Stepanek. Prometheus Books. p. 246. ISBN 0-87975-512-1
  9. Jump up ^ Susan Blackmore. (1986). The Adventures of a Parapsychologist. Prometheus Books. p. 176. ISBN 0-87975-360-9
  10. Jump up ^ George Abell, Barry Singer. (1983). Science and the Paranormal: Probing the Existence of the Supernatural. Scribner. p. 147. ISBN 0-684-17820-6
  11. Jump up ^ Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 141. ISBN 1-57392-979-4 "Parapsychologist Charles Tart (1976) used a random number generator to study the possibility of training people to use psi. Subjects were given feedback on whether or not their responses were correct following each trial. In standard learning theory, such feedback is extremely important and enhances learning greatly. Positive results were initially found, as subjects came to be able to match their responses to the numbers generated by the machine. It turned out, however, that the sequence of targets generated by the random number generator was not random. This finding renders highly problematic the contention that the experiment demonstrated psi. Tart’s response to the discovery of nonrandomness was to suggest that it was partly due to PK. Thus, a serious procedural flaw in an experiment has itself been claimed as evidence for psi, in yet another example of the use of a nonfalsifiable hypothesis."
  12. Jump up ^ Charles Tart, Harold Puthoff, Russell Targ. (1980). Information Transmission in Remote Viewing Experiments. Nature 284: 191.
  13. Jump up ^ Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 136. ISBN 1-57392-979-4
  14. Jump up ^ David Marks, Christopher Scott. (1986). Remote Viewing Exposed. Nature 319: 444.
  15. Jump up ^ Robert Todd Carroll. (2013). "Charles Tart". In The Skeptic's Dictionary. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-27242-6
  16. Jump up ^ LeVon Balzer. (1972). On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication by Charles T. Tart. The American Biology Teacher. Vol. 34, No. 7. p. 419.
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b Harris Chaiklin. (1973). On Being Stoned by Charles T. Tart. The Family Coordinator. Vol. 22, No. 1. pp. 145-146.
  18. Jump up ^ Richard Land. (1980). Learning to Use Extrasensory Perception by Charles T. Tart. Leonardo. Vol. 13, No. 2. p. 162.
  19. Jump up ^ James Randi (1982). The Truth About Uri Geller. Prometheus Books. p. 329. ISBN 0-87975-199-1
  20. Jump up ^ UC Davis News & Information :: Charles Tart
  21. Jump up ^ Abraham Maslow Award
  22. Jump up ^ Dr. Charles Tart Receives Award | Sofia University

External links[edit]

Audio interviews[edit]